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The Sixteenth Amendment

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The Sixteenth Amendment is often referred to as “the bill that was never meant to be”, or “the soak the rich bill” and could easily be assessed as the “it don’t mean anything bill” and has been in dispute since its inception and ironically those who sponsored the bill were the most504px-Bingham-Stevens displeased about its ratification. The Sixteenth Amendment was an end-run scheme led by the House of Representatives, and President Taft who intended to derail a state proposed income tax bill called the “Bailey Bill”. This scheme of party was never intended to become law and was written so blatantly in contradiction of existing constitutional text the House had little doubt it would be defeated in the Senate.

The Sixteenth Amendment created nothing, nor did it have intent to perform any specific function. Its obscure text was created primarily by the Republican President and his cronies in the House to deceive the people with a plan of deliberate deception; to pass the blame in the failure to establish an income tax from the Republican Party who represented industry and the rich, to the Democrats who represented the unions and labor.

When the U.S. Senate (representing the states) recognized that the ambiguity of the bill could be used to achieve the funding they wanted to build state infra-structure they chose to undermine at least three articles of the Constitution to let it prevail. The exercise to create a new tax system based upon a progressive standard of graduating wealth was then left to the interpretation of the court to work out the details – which to this day, the courts have yet to accomplish.

The Sixteenth Amendment became a device to give the court an ability to redefine the tax law through interpretation, and in tandem with the WilsonFirstInaugurationFourteenth Amendment was used to propel this country toward the incorporation of the “New Deal”. These super legislation’s being endorsed first by the commercial – nationalist movement during reconstruction and then by the progressive movement that its roots can be traced back to 1856 to the inception of the Radical Republican Party, continued the re-constructing of our federalism to nationalism.

Conversion from one form of government structure to the other was encouraged with the beginning in the use of dissenting opinion 536px-JudgeJMHarlanintroduced to the Supreme Court by Justice John Marshal Harlan in 1896. This process was the start of judicial activism that would later contaminate the process of judicial review (precedent of law) in court decisions beginning in 1937 and expanded in 1954 under Justice Earl Warren.

The structuring of the progressive tax system was more due to the miss-interpretations of the Court than by the legislative tactics of Congress. The only legislation that came from Congress which extended from the Sixteenth Amendment was the first loophole to protect the rich called “charitable foundations”.

In result was; instead of the Sixteenth Amendment soaking the rich, it was used to soak the working class. To further add insult to injury the 732px-Unemployed_men_queued_outside_a_depression_soup_kitchen_opened_in_Chicago_by_Al_Capone,_02-1931_-_NARA_-_541927Sixteenth Amendment has been the seed to the destruction of our domestic industry for little else than to spread the wealth and increase the size of government.

In the perspective of business the income tax is a failure, because it is expected to fund programs and departments of the government which depend upon the success of the economy. This dependency on the income tax as a primary source of raising revenue to fund independent agencies guarantees that every program is potentially doomed to fail when the economy declines and the source of income tax revenue is depleted.

In another respect the progressive tax system is a success by Marxist standards as it creates excessive waste and inefficiency. It is needed to understand that not all nationalist are communist, and a search 406px-General_George_Washington_at_Trenton_by_John_Trumbullin our history demonstrates this with the first attempt of nationalist to take control of the United States at Newburg, N.Y. in 1783.

At that time commercial – nationalist in the Second Continental Congress attempted through General Horatio Gates to convince other officers in the Continental Army to revolt against Congress in protest of broken promises. This attempt was thwarted by General Washington which saved this country from being coup d’etah by military force while the treaty of Versailles was still in negotiation in France (1781) .

The Fourteenth and Sixteenth Amendments have granted authority that which extended beyond the limits and constraints of the JBingham-JHolt-HBurnettConstitution. Our representatives should review both of these legislation’s first to determine a means to constrain the excessive abuses of discretionary authority, and second to establish a new system of raising resources to fund government. There are two such resolves been proposed; the establishing of a system for “Federal Referendum”, and the replacement of the income tax by “Residual Incentive”.

There can be no doubt that the common people in America are victims of congressional fraud perpetrated by factions in Congress for the introduction of a bill (the Sixteenth Amendment) with its deliberate intention of failure, that created no viable method or process of taxation, that its interpretation is in direct contraction to other articles and where its entire operation is depended upon court 1925_U.S._Supreme_Court_Justicesinterpretation of statute created by a free wheeling independent agency of sometimes ruthless tax collecting bureaucrats; a bill created with intention to committing fraud against the people violating the oath of office each of the participants sworn to protect their constituents. The people may have to accept the failure of inept legislation, but we are under no obligation to accept the result of deliberate congressional fraud.

Our Congress must be reminded that there are no laws – 9781257373260_p0_v1_s260x420 establishing federal referendumconstitutional, federal, or state that are beyond the reproach of the people to repeal. And the Court must acknowledge that there is no statute of limitation acceptable to protect any act of congressional fraud perpetrated against the people. Such a standard would allow the Federal government to mistakenly change the legislative authorities and jurisdictions and create legislative processes in total contraction to the original intent of our Constitution.

This is Part one of a series on the Sixteenth Amendment.Marco_Communications_Footer_600x200

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